Cryptocurrency 101: Understanding Blockchain, Bitcoin, Ethereum and NFTs

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Cryptocurrency has gained popularity and widespread usage in years. Buzzwords, like Bitcoin, blockchain, Ethereum and NFTs are increasingly common. However for individuals who’re new to this domain grasping its intricacies can be challenging. This guide, for beginners intends to elucidate the core principles underlying cryptocurrency and its associated technologies. By the time you finish reading it you will have a grasp of this emerging asset category and its potential. Lets commence our exploration from the start.

What is Cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrencies are assets that exist in virtual form and are protected by techniques. This encryption ensures that it is extremely difficult to create versions or spend the cryptocurrency more, than once. A significant number of cryptocurrencies rely on technology to document transactions and ownership. These transactions are stored in distributed ledgers known as blockchains, which operate without the control or ownership of an entity.

Bitcoin, widely acknowledged as the most prominent cryptocurrency, was introduced by an individual who operated under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008.Presently there exist cryptocurrencies, with applications. Here are a few notable attributes of cryptocurrencies;

  • Decentralization – No central authority controls cryptocurrencies or their networks. This distinguishes them from fiat currencies like U.S. dollars which are controlled by central banks.
  • Anonymity – Depending on the cryptocurrency, users can send and receive funds without providing personal information. Addresses are pseudonymous by default.
  • Immutability – Transactions recorded on blockchains are irreversible and permanent. This creates transparency and accountability.
  • Accessibility – Anyone with an internet connection can access cryptocurrency networks or obtain cryptocurrency. Geographic and political boundaries don’t limit transactions.

Next, we’ll explore the technology powering cryptocurrency – blockchain.

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Blockchain Technology Explained

Blockchain serves as the foundation, for the majority of cryptocurrencies. It enables the dissemination of information, without any risk of duplication or alteration. Let me explain how it functions;


Blockchains consist of sequential blocks that hold batches of transactions. As an illustration consider that a solitary Bitcoin block has the ability to accommodate than 1,000 transactions. Each block also includes a hash of the preceding block effectively connecting the blocks, in a sequential chain.


The blockchain is maintained and updated by a decentralized network of computers called nodes. These can be any device from PCs to servers. Nodes store a copy of the entire blockchain ledger and validate transactions through cryptography.


Special nodes called miners group valid transactions into blocks and add them to the blockchain by solving complex mathematical equations. This process is called mining. Successfully mined blocks are then broadcast to the network and verified by the other nodes.


For a transaction to be valid, it must be verified and confirmed by a majority of nodes on the network. This consensus mechanism protects the network’s security and integrity. Even if some nodes are compromised, the network will reject false transactions through consensus.

These core components create a reliable and immutable record of transactions. Next, we’ll explore the first and most influential cryptocurrency – Bitcoin.


Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Digital Cash

Bitcoin, which was introduced in 2008 by an individual or group known as Satoshi Nakamoto is considered the cryptocurrency. It revolutionized the way financial transactions are conducted through its implementation of technology. Lets delve into some characteristics of Bitcoin;

  • Decentralized – No single entity, like a bank, controls the Bitcoin network. It’s maintained by thousands of nodes worldwide.
  • Fixed supply – Only 21 million bitcoins will ever be created. This hard cap makes bitcoins scarce.
  • Divisible – 1 bitcoin can be divided into 100 million units called satoshis, allowing small transactions.
  • Fast transactions – Bitcoin transactions are confirmed in about 10 minutes and recorded permanently in the blockchain.
  • Pseudonymous – Users interact with the network using bitcoin addresses rather than real names.

Bitcoin was initially met with skepticism but demand and awareness have surged. Major companies like Microsoft, AT&T and Tesla now accept bitcoin payments. Despite volatility, its market cap tops $1 trillion, demonstrating investor interest. Bitcoin pioneered cryptocurrency but new projects are building on its limitations. This brings us to Ethereum.

Introducing Ethereum and Smart Contracts

Created in 2015, Ethereum builds on Bitcoin’s foundations but adds more utility. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum has its own blockchain and native cryptocurrency called ether. Beyond digital cash, Ethereum allows decentralized computing on its blockchain through smart contracts.

Smart contracts are programs that run automatically when conditions are met. For example, a smart contract could instantly pay out insurance claims once a flight is delayed over a set timeframe. Ethereum developers can create complex dApps, decentralized apps powered by smart contracts.

Here are some key facts about Ethereum:

  • Flexible – Ethereum allows developers to create new types of decentralized blockchain apps beyond just payments.
  • Smart contracts – These programs expand blockchain capabilities. dApps based on smart contracts have myriad uses.
  • Ether – Ether is the Ethereum network’s native cryptocurrency, traded on crypto exchanges. It’s needed to power smart contracts.

EthereumAddress some limitations of Bitcoin like slow transaction times. But as it’s grown, Ethereum has run into scaling difficulties itself. This has inspired alternative smart contract platforms that improve on Ethereum’s foundations.

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Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) Take Cryptocurrency Mainstream

Non-fungible tokens or NFTs have recently soared in popularity, bringing crypto into mainstream business and culture. Unlike bitcoin and ether, NFTs are digital assets that represent ownership of unique physical or digital items like art, music, videos, tweets, virtual real estate and more.

Each NFT is “non-fungible” meaning it has unique attributes and is not interchangeable like typical cryptocurrencies. This creates digital scarcity and verifies authenticity and ownership. NFTs are minted on blockchains like Ethereum and sold in crypto marketplaces. They transform digital works into verifiable assets.

Here are some prominent NFT uses:

  • Digital art – Artists mint artwork as NFTs to sell directly to collectors. NFT art sales exceeded $41 billion in 2021.
  • Collectibles – Brands like Marvel and the NBA release limited edition collectibles as NFTs.
  • Gaming – NFTs can represent in-game assets like virtual land, avatars, equipment and more. Decentraland is a popular blockchain-based virtual world.

NFTs could disrupt industries like art, gaming, real estate, intellectual property and finance. However, challenges around fraud, copyright and environmental impact remain.


This introductory guide covered the basics of cryptocurrency and blockchain technology using straightforward analogies and examples. We explored influential cryptoassets like Bitcoin and Ethereum and emerging use cases like NFTs.

Blockchain’s decentralization ushers in technological disruption across industries. Cryptocurrency allows fast, global, anonymous transactions with low fees. Expect volatility amid massive adoption. There are knowledge gaps and regulatory uncertainty. But it’s clear that crypto assets are becoming more mainstream and integrated with legacy systems.

Understanding these core concepts empowers you to further explore this new digital frontier. The world of blockchain and cryptocurrency promises to be an exciting ride in the years ahead.

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