How to Choose the Right Programming Language to Learn in 2023

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Learning how to code is an extremely valuable skill in today’s tech-driven world. With so many programming languages to choose from, it can be overwhelming trying to decide which one to learn first. However, not all languages are created equal. The “right” programming language depends largely on your specific goals and interests. This beginner’s guide will walk you through the key factors to consider when selecting a coding language in 2023.

Determine Your Purpose for Learning to Code

Before choosing a programming language, think about why you want to learn to code in the first place. Are you hoping to build mobile apps? Web applications? Software? Games? Data science models? Your objectives will help guide you.

For example, if your goal is to develop Android apps, you’ll want to learn Java or Kotlin. If you’re interested in front-end web development, JavaScript would be a good option. Game development? Consider C++ or C#. The programming language you choose should align with your purposes for learning.

Consider In-Demand Programming Languages

Another important consideration is how in-demand a language is in the job market. Although you don’t need to pick a language solely based on popularity, it’s wise to know which ones are widely used in the industry.

According to IEEE Spectrum’s 2022 ranking, the top 5 most in-demand languages are Python, C, Java, C++, and C#. JavaScript also remains highly sought-after for front-end web development roles. Focusing on prevalent languages like these can maximize your employability.

Evaluate Language Difficulty

Pay attention to how difficult a language is to learn, especially for beginners. For your first language, you’ll want something with simple syntax that’s relatively easy to master.

Python and Ruby are two examples of languages with more beginner-friendly learning curves. On the other hand, languages like C++ have a steeper difficulty level and longer ramp-up time. Consider how much time you have to dedicate and select an appropriate challenge level.

How to Choose the Right Programming Language to Learn in 2023

Find Your Motivation Style

To succeed in coding, you need to choose a language that keeps you engaged and motivated.

Do you enjoy purely text-based languages like Python? Or visual languages like Scratch that allow you to drag and drop code blocks? Think about whether you prefer strictly typed or dynamically typed languages as well. Matching your learning style is key.

Research Language Communities

An active community is invaluable when you’re first starting out. Look for languages with thriving online forums, user groups, mailing lists, and other developer communities you can turn to for help.

JavaScript, Java, and Python all have very large and supportive communities. A lack of community resources in obscure languages can hinder your learning process.

Consider Available Learning Resources

Closely related to community is the availability of high-quality learning materials like online courses, tutorials, documentation, and books.

Mainstream languages tend to have far more abundant educational resources, from free Codecademy lessons to comprehensive textbooks. This makes them easier to learn compared to niche languages.

Think About Your Goals Over Time

Don’t just think about your immediate coding goals for today. Also consider your aspirations over the next few years.

For example, if you eventually want to get into mobile development, choosing Java or Kotlin now allows room to grow. Take a broader view of your long-term objectives when selecting a language.

Weigh the Importance of Language Paradigm

Programming languages fall into a few main paradigms, or approaches, to coding. The paradigm a language uses affects how you’ll need to think about and write code.

Common paradigms include procedural, object-oriented, functional, and logic. Know the differences between paradigms and consider if one approach makes more sense for you and your goals.

Evaluate Required Infrastructure Needs

Some languages require more complex infrastructure to run programs, which can get expensive. For example, Java’s memory management needs a runtime environment to execute. Simple scripting languages like Python and Ruby have lower infrastructure demands.

If you’re coding as a hobby on a budget, infrastructure requirements matter. Just starting out? Aim for languages you can run locally at little to no cost.

Make Sure It Integrates With Other Tools

Today, most applications involve integrating various technologies. Before choosing a coding language, research how well it works with other tools you want to use like frameworks, libraries, and databases.

For instance, Python and Java both integrate smoothly with all kinds of other platforms. But niche or legacy languages could limit your ability to combine technologies.

Find a Language That Makes Sense For Your Industry

If you’re learning to code to boost your skills in a certain industry or field, research which languages are commonly used there first.

For data science, Python and R dominate. Blockchain? Consider Solidity or Go. By picking an industry-relevant language, you maximize how applicable your skills are.

Don’t Forget About Your Local Job Market

Take some time to analyze the programming language demands and trends specific to job openings in your geographic area.

Large tech hubs like Silicon Valley have far different needs than smaller towns. Find out what skills local companies are looking for to align with your regional job market.

Let Your Interests Guide You

Never underestimate the power of your own interests and passions when choosing a coding language. The most motivating language to learn is often simply the one that excites you the most!

Do your research, then go with the language that sparks your curiosity and imagination. Your enthusiasm will fuel your drive to learn.

Try Out Multiple Languages

Don’t feel like you must commit to just one programming language as a beginner. It’s valuable to experiment with a few different options at first to get a feel for what you enjoy most.

Dabble in everything from HTML and CSS to JavaScript, Python, and C# to start. Down the road you can specialize once you’ve discovered the language that clicks.

Don’t Worry Too Much About Making the “Perfect” Choice

As a beginner, there’s no one absolutely “right” choice when selecting your first programming language. Any mainstream, in-demand language will provide a solid foundation in coding fundamentals you can apply across languages.

Don’t overthink it. The important thing is to simply start coding now instead of getting paralyzed by the decision. You can always learn new languages later on too!

Key Factors to Consider When Choosing a Programming Language:

  • Your goals for learning to code
  • In-demand languages for employability
  • Difficulty level for beginners
  • Learning style motivations
  • Active language communities
  • Available educational resources
  • Long-term goals beyond just starting out
  • Programming paradigms
  • Infrastructure needs
  • Ability to integrate with other technologies
  • Industry relevance
  • Local job market demands
  • Your interests and passions
  • Trying multiple options
  • Picking a language is not an irreversible commitment

Popular Beginner-Friendly Programming Languages

Based on the criteria above, here are some of the most popular and pragmatic programming languages for beginners to consider first:


With simple syntax and extensive libraries, Python is often recommended as a first language. It’s very versatile for web development, data analysis, machine learning, and more. The user-friendly code makes it one of the easiest to learn.


As the language of web interactivity, JavaScript is mandatory for front-end web developers. It has a relatively gradual learning curve and combines well with HTML/CSS. JavaScript sees widespread real-world use.


Java is ubiquitous in enterprise applications and especially Android app development. While not the easiest language to master, Java skills offer many job opportunities. The object-oriented approach teaches good programming habits.


For beginners interested in building Windows desktop apps and games, C# is a great starting place. It has a nice balance of being approachable for newcomers while still very powerful and expressive.


Ruby’s clean syntax and resemblance to everyday English make it one of the most readable languages. It’s a great first language if you want to focus on web development with the Ruby on Rails framework.


Despite its steeper learning curve, C++ is very versatile and performs well. For those serious about systems or game programming, C++ is worth the effort and provides a solid skills foundation.


Strictly a database query language, SQL is invaluable for accessing, manipulating, and analyzing data. It’s relatively simple to pick up and integrates into many other languages.


For complete beginners, especially children, Scratch uses visual blocks to teach coding fundamentals without syntax complexities. This gently eases you into computational thinking.


Dominant in data science and statistics, R makes it easy to visualize and analyze data. The libraries are incredible learning resources. Those interested in data should learn R.

Learn the Fundamentals, Then Branch Out

When just starting out, the specific language matters less than learning core coding concepts like variables, data structures, loops, conditional logic, and functions. Any mainstream language can instill the fundamentals.

Once you grasp the basics, branching out into other languages becomes much easier. Never stop learning new languages, frameworks, and toolsets that interest you. Aim to become fluent in multiple programming tongues!

The right programming language for you depends on your specific aspirations, background, and motivations as a beginner. Use this guide to make an informed decision. But take that vital first step and simply start coding in any language! The programming journey ahead promises to be challenging and rewarding.

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