The Best Programming Languages for Beginners 2023

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Learning to code is an incredible programming language and a valuable skill. As our world becomes more dependent on technology, understanding how to program computers provides opportunities in many careers. However beginners often find it overwhelming to decide where to begin due, to the multitude of programming languages.

In this guide, for beginners we’ll be. Contrasting the programming languages to assist you in deciding which one is ideal, for your initial learning journey. By understanding the features, benefits and constraints of each language you can make a decision that aligns with your objectives. Lets begin shall we?

What is a Programming Language?

A programming language is a formal language that provides a set of instructions that get executed by a computer. Languages have predefined syntax rules that allow humans to communicate with machines.

Software developers use programming languages to create software, applications and websites that can be understood by computers. Each programming language has its collection of keywords, operators, variables and methods.

When choosing your first language, it’s helpful to understand two main types:

  • Low-level languages – require little human translation. But they are harder to read and write. Examples: Assembly, C.
  • High-level languages – designed to be closer to human languages. Easier to read and write. Examples: Python, JavaScript.

For those who’re new to programming it is often advised to start with high level languages. Now lets delve into a few of the used choices.

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Python consistently tops lists for the best first programming language to learn. Created in 1991, it has exploded in popularity over the last decade.

Why Learn Python First?

  • Simple Syntax – Resembles everyday English. Easy-to-read code with less punctuation.
  • Versatile – Used for web development, data science, AI, and more. Broad applications.
  • Clear Structure – Relies on indentation and whitespace to structure code visually. Intuitive format.
  • Huge Community – Extensive libraries and resources. Active support forums.
  • Marketable Skill – In high demand by employers. Valuable addition to any resume.

With simple syntax that reads like English, Python is one of the most intuitive languages for beginners. The consistent structure provides a smooth initial transition to programming language.

The versatile applications also make Python a great first language. You can build a wide variety of programs and products, giving beginners exposure to many aspects of development.

Limitations of Python

  • Slower Performance – As an interpreted language, Python runs slower than compiled languages.
  • Weak in Mobile Development – Less support for Android and iOS development than alternatives.
  • Indentation Crucial – The strict indentation structure can be finicky for beginners.

While excellent for getting started, Python does have some drawbacks. The most notable is slower performance compared to compiled languages. Python also has fewer robust options for mobile development.

The strict indentation requirements also take some adjustment. But overall, the pros greatly outweigh the cons, making Python a top choice.

Programming Language


As the language of web interactivity, JavaScript is another great option for beginners. It powers the dynamic functionality and effects on most websites.

Why Learn JavaScript First?

  • Web Ubiquity – The core language of the internet. Used on over 97% of websites.
  • Beginner Friendly – Easy to get basic programs running to see results.
  • Flexible – Full-stack development and beyond. Runs on front & backend.
  • Huge Ecosystem – Plug into diverse libraries, frameworks, and tools.
  • In Demand Skill – Valuable for front-end and full-stack roles.

JS has dominated the web for years and continues to grow. The ability to access and manipulate page content makes it integral to modern web functionality.

It’s also relatively beginner friendly, allowing new coders to get basic scripts running quickly. This provides rewarding feedback in those critical early stages.

While traditionally a front-end language, JS now offers back-end options through Node.js. This versatility makes it a great intro language.

Limitations of JavaScript

  • Loose Syntax – Easy to introduce subtle bugs that are hard to detect.
  • Client-side Only – Requires extra tools to run server-side code.
  • Complex Concepts – Some core elements like ‘this’ keyword take time to master.
  • Browser Dependent – Subtle differences in browser environments.

JS does have some beginner drawbacks. Its loose syntax makes it easy to create bugs without throwing errors. The client-side only nature also adds complexity for back-end programming.

There are also some core concepts like scope and context that take time to wrap your head around. But with its web ubiquity and beginner friendly reputation, JavaScript remains a top intro language.


As one of the most established languages, Java is always a contender for first language. Though not as beginner-friendly as Python or JS, it provides rock-solid fundamentals.

Why Learn Java First?

  • Object-oriented Foundation – Forces OOP style. Excellent structure for beginners.
  • Statically Typed – Detects errors during compile to prevent bugs.
  • Robust Ecosystem – Wide selection of libraries and frameworks.
  • Write Once, Run Anywhere – Cross-platform portability.
  • In Demand – Valuable and transferable skill for industry jobs.

Java’s rigid object-oriented structure provides an excellent foundation in OOP, a crucial programming paradigm. The strict data types also help catch errors during compilation.

As a mature language, Java offers a vast array of robust tools and libraries for development. This ecosystem allows you to apply skills across many areas.

The famous “write once, run anywhere” principle also makes Java skills transferable across multiple platforms. Adding Java to your resume opens doors at many companies.

Limitations of Java

  • Verbose Syntax – Lots of keywords and configuration code. Can be overwhelming.
  • Steep Learning Curve – Complex OOP model requires more upfront study.
  • Slower Onboarding – Takes longer to build first programs compared to Python/JS.
  • Mainly Back-End – Less functionality on client-side web development.

The biggest downside of Java for beginners is the verbosity. Configuration-heavy syntax and OOP principles make the initial ramp up steeper compared to similar languages.

While the robust structure pays off long-term, it does mean your first usable programs will take a little longer. Java is better suited for those willing to invest in the foundations upfront.


As a beginner friendly alternative to Java, C# combines object-oriented fundamentals with modern language features.

Why Learn C# First?

  • OOP Foundation – Classes, objects, and inheritance like Java.
  • Simpler Syntax – Streamlined structure with less verbosity.
  • Unity Support – Integrated with popular game engine.
  • .NET Ecosystem – Seamless integration with Microsoft stack.
  • In Demand Skill – Enterprise development on Windows stack.

Sharing OOP principles with Java, C# provides a gentler introduction to structured programming. Removing some of Java’s rigid requirements creates a more gradual onboarding.

The syntax is also simpler, with fewer symbols and keywords to memorize. C# offers a nice middle ground for learners wanting OOP fundamentals without as steep a curve.

C# skills are also in demand for companies working within Microsoft ecosystems. Exposure to .NET tools and platforms gives beginners a valuable enterprise development skillset.

Limitations of C#

  • Windows Dominant – Far less common on Linux and Mac systems.
  • Proprietary – Owned by Microsoft. Some bias toward their products.
  • Less Portable – Focus on Windows development. Less multi-platform.
  • Smaller Community – Not as many learning resources as Java.

The main limitation of C# is the tight integration with Microsoft products. While great for Windows development, skills don’t transfer as well to other platforms.

The language is also owned by Microsoft. So while the syntax is nicer, you do give up some language neutrality. Overall C# is best for beginners interested specifically in Windows development.

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Known for programmer happiness, Ruby delivers a fun and intuitive experience. The expressive syntax makes it one of the most readable languages.

Why Learn Ruby First?

  • Natural Syntax – Reads like English prose. Elegant and expressive.
  • Beginner Friendly – Lots of tutorials and documentation for novices.
  • Flexible – Full-stack development. Back-end and front-end frameworks.
  • Strong Community – Conferences and meetups encourage learning.
  • Valuable Skill – Heavily used in web apps and devops tools.

Ruby immediately stands out for its natural expressiveness. The syntax is designed to mirror prose and thought patterns. This cognitive ergonomics creates a playful experience.

The inclusive community also encourages beginners. Conferences and meetups provide support and camaraderie around learning.

As the language behind Rails, Ruby delivers valuable web development skills. Many popular developer tools and automation libraries are also built with Ruby.

Limitations of Ruby

  • Interpreted Performance – No compiler. Execution can be slower.
  • Single Paradigm – Mostly object-oriented. Less support for functional styles.
  • Complex Setup – Long install time. Environment needs tuning knowledge.
  • Less Common – Not as widely adopted as other backend languages.

The main downsides of Ruby are performance related. As an interpreted language, complex programs will run slower compared to compiled equivalents in Java or C#.

Ruby community also leans heavily object-oriented. Support for functional and declarative styles is less robust.

Finally, the initial setup process is slow, with a complex dependency tree. Environment configuration requires extra tuning knowledge. Overall though, Ruby offers one of the best starting experiences.

Conclusion Programming Languages

  • Python – Excellent general-purpose programming language. Simple syntax and broad capabilities.
  • JavaScript – Dominant client-side web language. Flexible front and backend.
  • Java – Provides solid OOP foundation. Statically typed and mature ecosystem.
  • C# – Beginner friendly alternative to Java for Microsoft ecosystems.
  • Ruby – Expressive and fun. Strong community and web development capabilities.

When choosing your first programming language, assess your goals and interests. Python and JavaScript provide the smoothest onboarding with the widest capabilities for beginners. Java introduces professional OOP principles with a steep learning curve. For Microsoft developers, C# offers a gentler starting path. And Ruby delivers the most welcoming and human-friendly learning experience.

Any of these languages are excellent options. The most important thing is to pick one and dive in. Programming skills open exciting possibilities. Your first language is just the first step on a journey of lifelong learning and creativity. The only way to start is to start.

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