What is data?
We can say data in such a way that it is a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which is suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by an electronic or electronic machine.
We can represent data with the help of characters such as alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9), or any special characters (+, -, /, *, <,>, =), etc. This data can also be some character, text, numbers, pictures, sound, or even video. At the same time, if the data is not inserted in any context, then it does not work, whether it is for entry or for a computer. Information in its crude structure is of no utilization. In any case, when we measure and decipher similar information, at that point the right significance of them comes out, and which is valuable for us. This processed data is also called Information.
Analog vs. Digital
There are two general ways of representing data: Analog and digital. Analog data are constantly continuous – they are ‘analogous’ and represent their actual facts. Digital data is discrete and broken up into a limited number of elements. For example, nature is analog, while computers are digital.
In our natural world, things are continuous in nature. For example, you can see the colors of the rainbow. In this, the rainbow is continuous and donates shades of in ﬁ nite number. While in PC frameworks, they are nonstop however ﬁnite. Each one of that information that you store in paired digits, limit how much information can be spoken to.
Types of Data
Computer systems work with digital data of different cars. In the earlier days of computing, data primarily consisted of only text and numbers; But at the same time when talking about modern-day computing, there are multimedia data of all the cars, such as audio, images, graphics and video. But ultimately, all data types are stored in the same way as binary digits. For each data type, there are very few speciﬁc techniques to convert them between computers of binary language and from that, we use our senses to Interpret them with data such as sight and sound.
What is database
We cannot speak about data without taking the name of the database. Yes, a database is an organized collection of data. To organize this data, data is provided with the help of a database rather than putting it in random order on a similar list. A very common data structure in a database table. This table basically consists of rows and columns. Each row is typically called a record, while each column is typically called a ﬁeld.
What is Information
Information is the data of a type that has been fully processed in such a way that it would be as meaningful to the person who receives it. It can be anything that can be communicated.
Where data is called raw facts, while information processed data is called. For example, subject marks, roll number, age, rank, etc. of students of a class can be called data. While in the event that you are approached to bring the signs of maths of the best 5 understudies out of those understudies, at that point you should initially order all the information of those understudies and afterward by handling it, you can give the information looked for. This is where data you get on the basis of results is called information. Information is organized and classiﬁ ed data, which has some meaningful values for the receiver. Information is the processed data of a car on which decisions and actions are based.
To make decision meaningful, processed data must qualify for certain characteristics, which are
- Timely – Information should always be available when they are needed.
- Accuracy – Information should always be accurate.
- Completeness – Information should always be complete. If processed data has all these characteristics, then it is actually called information.
How is the data stored?
Hard drives or any other storage device is used to store data and information in a typical computer.
Data that is stored in computer memory/storage is typically categorized into two parts.
1. Permanent storage (Hard disk / Hard drive)
2. Temporary storage (RAM – Random Access memory).
The difference between these two is that it maintains permanent storage data even in case of power failure, it can retain it until you intentionally delete it, while the temporary memory data will be lost immediately. When a power failure occurs and it is automatically managed by the computer’s CPU.
Temporary memory is used by most computer applications to run processes. Once the process is complete, then it is used to run other new processes. It is mainly used to store temporary ﬁles.
When we group bits together, it is given a name in the computer industry. Most references use computers’ number of bytes as a measure with respect to computer memory (primary storage) capacity and storage (secondary) capacity.
Computer memory is partitioned (divided) into any number of data containers called memory cells.
All cells can store only a speciﬁc amount of data called a word (eg 8 bits of data).
All cells have an associated location identiﬁer called to address.
Data that is processed is encoded in binary (base-2 number) form that uses encoding schemes of different types than gallons, so let’s discuss them further.
To begin, digits are 0 and 1 binary digits, and the brake is called a bit in short. At the same time, 0 represents OFF state and 1 represents ON state.
If n bits are in a cell, and there are 2n (which means “2 to the power of n”) ways in which zeros and ones are arranged, for example, 2 binary digits (either 1 or 0), it will all be arranged. (22 or 2 × 2 or 4) can be possibilities which are -00, 01, 10 and 11.
To determine the capacity of a computer’s memory, two aspects are taken into account, the first is the number of bits per cell and the number of cells in which the memory is partitioned, for example, computer memory depends. How many bits are stored in each cell and how many cells are available.
Since the computer industry has a sequence of 8-bits (also called a byte), this is the basic unit of memory.
Units for Measuring Memory (Data Storage) Capacity:
Types of Data
Talking about programming, then we can say that data type is a classicﬁ cation that specifies which type of value is near a variable and which mathematical, relational or logical operations of the car will be applied to them. Which will not cause any error.
For example, a string is a data type used to classify text, while an integer is a data type used to classify whole numbers.
Such data contain numbers up to 0-9 ie Decimal Numbers. This numerical data is used exclusively on the computer. In the Excel sheet, we use numerical data on the basis of data.
Alpha Numeric Data
Just like it sounds, these data include all kinds of pictures like @, #, $, etc.
Mobile data this type of data consists of all types of videos and they are used in video formats such as MP4, MKV, etc.
In this kind of data, images, pictures, graphical data, etc. are used in JPG, PNG format.
What is Data Processing?
Data processing is a process in which raw data is converted into meaningful information from the case of a process. The data is manipulated to produce results and to resolve a problem or improve the situation of a current problem.
Like a production process, it also follows a cycle where inputs (raw data) are put into a process (computer systems, software, etc.) to produce output (information and insights).
Basic Stages of Data Processing consists of basically three steps of the data processing cycle.
In this step, the input data is prepared in a convenient form for processing. This depends on the form processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data is stored in a simple medium such as magnetic disks, tapes, or some other.
In this step, the input data is converted into produce data which is a slightly useful form. For example, sales orders are seen in a company to calculate a summary of sales.
In this step, the result of the processing step before it is collected. A particular form of output data depends on how that data is used. For example, output data can also contain pay-checks of any employees.
Let’s now understand the basic stages of Data Processing in details
Data is collected and stored elsewhere in this input process. Store means that it is done somewhere, whether you can store it on the computer or you can also write it in some paper. Understand the second process of input.
Before input, we need to collect data. Data is collected from different sources, such that all schools have to go to find out how many schools are in a city. How many students have more than 50% marks in a class. To know this information, every student needs to collect the mark sheet.
Now the next step is Veri ﬁ cation, where it is con ﬁ rm whether the data input taken for it is true or false. Like when the result is first verified before doing PUBLISH. You also verify once before giving a report to someone.
Coding data is done in this step, this means converting it to Machine form or converting it to Computer Readable Form. This allows computer Input data to be easily processed further.
Now the data entered in the excel or word of the computer. That data is pushed to the computer. A Storage Device is used for this. When the data is asserted in the printer, only the next step is sent for processing.
This is the step where the process of creating information starts. Here all of the following techniques are used, such as classiﬁ cation, sorting, calculation, summarizing.
In this process, data is classified into groups and subgroups. Which will make it easier to understand the data properly. For example, if you classify the students’ data in college, separate the data of the science class, separate the data of the commerce class and separate the data of the art category, which makes it easier to do data analysis.
An arithmetic operation is performed over the data given in the Calculation Process. Like those operations can be some of the sum, average, percentage. EX-how much is the average marks of students in a class, the ratio of male and female, all these are covered in the calculation steps. Through this, we get correctly summarized information.
After performing all the operations given above the input data, a summarized report is produced. No information is ever given to the management in a company, it is just sent to Sharon’s.
This is because they do not have time for all things and it also saves time. Like doctors, after doing a lot of tests, give a report that this man has this disease. The report card is also a summary of the exam result. Perhaps you have understood that data is sent from Cai for processing and is from Cai.
When all the steps of processing are finished, then the output is the result, which can be called information. The only purpose of the processing step is to extract the stick result and give it to the user. Most of the time output information is stored in a storage device. Such as hard, pen drive, CD, DVD.
In the future, the output result can be retrieved from Storage Media whenever desired. For example, when a student wants the result of the 7-semester exam, then anyone can see the marks of any semester. This disease is called Retrieval.
The output result can be changed in different forms. Perhaps you have seen that after processing the data, which is the output result, you can see any of them as Output Information – Graph, Flowchart, Chart, Table, Diagram, Report. India’s Graph of Population, Population growth chart, College time table are all examples of Output results.
Any output that comes out after the data is processed is Information. Which is more inward to share, such as a newspaper that is easy for everyone to access. If talking college time table which is printed on the Peon Notice Board.
By which this information is available to all the students, this is called communication. The process of sharing the output result is called communication. (Nowadays when the camera has come, sharing is happening as soon as photos are put in the WhatsApp group like time table photo, result, notice)