Some types of ﬁle systems (also called FS in short) in computers that help store and organize data in storage media, such as Hard Drive, CDs, DVDs, optical drive, Or ﬂash drive (pen drive).
You can think of a ﬁle system as an index or database in which the physical location of all the data of the hard drive or any other storage device is stored. The data is usually organized in folders called directories of directories, and it also contains other folders and ﬁles.
Any place where a computer or any other electronic device stores data, there is a use of a file system of any car. This includes your Windows computer, your Mac, Smartphone, Bank of ATM… even your computer.
If you also have these files and want to get complete information about their types, then you should read this article completely through the file system in the printer, till all the doubts article in your mind gets destroyed. No more. So let’s move forward without delay.
What is File System?
In a computer system, everything is stored with the help of ﬁles. These ﬁles are either data ﬁles or application ﬁles. Each operating system has its own way of organizing data internally.
The operating system here performs this management with the help of a program called File System. Here the type of ﬁle system determines how data and programs should be accessed from the cache. It also determines what level of accessibility is available to the users.
Are the files simulated?
In a computer, a ﬁ le system – which is a written ﬁle system – is a method where ﬁles are named and where they are replaced logically for storage and retrieval.
Without a ﬁ le system, isolating stored information is difficult work in individual ﬁles and in such a way it becomes even more difficult to retrieve by identifying it. As data capacities increase, then their organization and accessibility of individual ﬁles become more important in data storage.
Digital ﬁ le systems and ﬁles have been named and modeled such that only after paper-based ﬁ ling systems can they store and retrieve documents using the same logic-based method.
File systems are different in different operating systems (OS), such as Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux-based systems. Some ﬁ le systems are designed for certain speciﬁc applications. Major types of ﬁ le systems include distributed ﬁ le systems, disk-based ﬁ le systems, and special-purpose ﬁle systems.
The architecture of the File system
Each File System has two or three layers. Sometimes all the layers in the File System are separated separately, and sometimes all the layers’ functions are combined into one layer. It depends on the work to be done.
1. Logical ﬁle system – These files are related to the SIM user interface, such as to open (OPEN) the file under an AK program and read (READ) its data, and then click (CLOSE) the file. AKK provides the Application Program Interface. This layer provides file access, directory related tasks, and security-related operations.
2. Virtual ﬁle system (optional) – This layer is not present in every file system, this layer is used to bind virtual files.
3. Physical ﬁle system – This layer is related to the physical operation of the storage device (such as a disk). It processes physical blocks to be read or written. It handles buffering and memory management and is responsible for the physical location of the blocks in specific locations on the storage village. The physical file sim interacts with the device or with the channel to run the storage device.
How do file systems work?
A ﬁle system that stores and organizes data, we can understand the type of index that indexes all the data of the storage device. These devices can also be some such as hard drives, optical drives, and ﬂash drives.
Along with the file, ﬁle systems also hold different information from the table such as the size of ﬁle, in its attributes, location and hierarchy directory, and also in the metadata.
Metadata can easily identify the available storage of free blocks in that drive and how much space is available now. A ﬁle system also includes a format that specifies the path to ﬁle from the structure of its directory. A ﬁle is placed in a directory – or in a folder of the Windows OS – or in the desired place in a subdirectory in a tree structure.
Before creating ﬁles and directories in Storage Medium, partitions must be placed in the correct locations first. A partition is a region of hard disk or any other storage that the OS manages separately.
A ﬁle system is placed in the primary partition, and some OSes allow multiple partitions on the same disk. In such a situation, if a ﬁle system becomes corrupt, then the data in the second partition is completely safe.
File System (from Operating Systems)
By the way, because of the systems of File Systems, there are many different logical structures and properties, such as speed and size. These may differ from the type of ﬁle system depending on the OS or if the OS needs them.
The three most common PC operating systems are Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. The Mobile Operating System includes Apple iOS and Google Android.
While here we will learn about these major ﬁle systems only:
1. File allocation table (FAT)
It supports the File System Microsoft Windows OS. FAT is considered as simple and reliable and modeled only after legacy ﬁle systems.
The FAT was designed in 1977 for ﬂoppy disks but was also later adapted for hard disks. While it is very eﬃcient and compatible with all current OSes, FAT cannot match with the current modern ﬁle systems if their performance and scalability are compared.
2. Global ﬁle system (GFS)
This ﬁle system is mainly used in Linux OS. It is a shared disk ﬁle system. GFS offers direct access to shared block storage and can also be used as part of a local ﬁle system.
GFS2 is an updated version of the Original GFS, which has features that you cannot find in the original GFS, such as an updated metadata system. Under the GNU General Public License, both GFS and GFS2 ﬁle systems are available as part of free software.
3. Hierarchical ﬁle system (HFS)
These HFS were developed to be used in Mac operating systems. HFS is referred to by a Mac OS Standard, followed by Mac OS Extended.
It was originally introduced in 1985. For the ﬂoppy and hard disks, HFS completely replaced the original Macintosh ﬁle system. It can also be used in CD-ROMs.
Windows File System
Though the cars are very useful even with Windows File Systems they are also very important. So let’s know about the topic of Ui.
1. FAT File System
The full form of FAT is “File Allocation Table”. The File Allocation Table (FAT) is a ﬁle system that has been created by Microsoft in 1977.
This ﬁle allocation table is used by the operating system in the disk to locate ﬁles. A ﬁ le can be divided into sections and broken into sections due to fragmentation around the disk. The FAT keeps track of all pieces of ﬁle.
In DOS systems, FAT is stored after the boot sector. The use of these ﬁ le systems began to go away after the arrival of the PC.
FAT is still used as a preferred ﬁle system for ﬂ oppy drive media and portable, high capacities storage devices such as ﬂ ash drives and other solid-state memory devices such as SD cards.
What are the features of the FAT File System?
Let’s now know about some important features of FAT File System
1. The FAT ﬁle system which was used by MS-DOS used to provide only ﬁle names with 8 characters long.
2. The FAT ﬁle system used by Windows 2000 used long ﬁle name support. Here he used to support the full path of ﬁ le including file name for about 255 characters long.
3. It can use any character in file names except “/  =, ^? A” “
4. File names must be initialized with an alphanumeric character.
5. File names can use spaces and multiple periods. In this, the characters after the last period are also considered as ﬁ le extension.
FAT does not provide local nor folder security. A user who is logged on to the computer locally then has full access to all files and folders that are in the FAT partitions of the computer.
FAT donates Quick Access to files quick access to ﬁles. The speed of file access depends on ﬁle type, ﬁle size, partition size, fragmentation, and number of ﬁles that are in the folder.
2. FAT32 File System
FAT32 is an advanced version of the FAT ﬁ le system. It can be used in drives whose memory is in size from 512 MB to 2TB. One very important feature is the compatibility of FAT and FAT32 with the compatibility of other operating systems, which is different from Windows 2000.
What are the features of the FAT32 File System?
Let’s know about the features of FAT32 now,
- Partition Size
FAT32 increases the number of bits used to address the cluster.
A cluster set of sectors is called. These reduce the size of each cluster. It supports a larger disk (up to 2TB) and provides better storage eﬃciency.
- Access speed
FAT32 provides better ﬁ le access, in those partitions whose sizes are less than 500 MB or larger than 2GB, it provides better disk space utilization.